در این قسمت سعی من بر این هست که میانبرهایی رو در Bash برای شما قرار بدهم که معمولا به خاطر استفاده نکردن زیاد ممکن هست یادتون بره، اما کاربرد اونها خیلی زیاد هست و اگر بدونیدشون خیلی جاها می تونه خیلی سریع کمکتون کنه:

#!/bin/bash
##############################################################################
# SHORTCUTS
##############################################################################

CTRL+A  # move to beginning of line
CTRL+C  # halts the current command
CTRL+E  # moves to end of line
CTRL+K  # deletes (kill) forward to end of line
CTRL+L  # clears screen and redisplay the line

CTRL+N  # next line in command history
CTRL+P  # previous line in command history

CTRL+R  # searches backward
CTRL+S  # searches forward

CTRL+T  # transposes two characters
CTRL+U  # kills backward from point to the beginning of line
CTRL+W  # kills the word behind the cursor
CTRL+X  # lists the possible filename completions of the current word
CTRL+Y  # retrieves (yank) last item killed
CTRL+Z  # stops the current command, resume with fg in the foreground or bg in the background

!!      # repeats the last command
exit    # logs out of current session

##############################################################################
# SSH, SYSTEM INFO & NETWORK COMMANDS
##############################################################################

ssh [email protected]            # connects to host as user
ssh -p <port> [email protected]  # connects to host on specified port as user
ssh-copy-id [email protected]    # adds your ssh key to host for user to enable a keyed or passwordless login

whoami                   # returns your username
passwd                   # lets you change your password

date                     # shows the current date and time
cal                      # shows the month's calendar
uptime                   # shows current uptime
w                        # displays whois online
finger <user>            # displays information about user
uname -a                 # shows kernel information
man <command>            # shows the manual for specified command
df                       # shows disk usage
du <filename>            # shows the disk usage of the files and directories in filename (du -s give only a total)
last <yourUsername>      # lists your last logins
ps -u yourusername       # lists your processes
kill <PID>               # kills the processes with the ID you gave
killall <processname>    # kill all processes with the name
top                      # displays your currently active processes
bg                       # lists stopped or background jobs ; resume a stopped job in the background
fg                       # brings the most recent job in the foreground
fg <job>                 # brings job to the foreground

ping <host>              # pings host and outputs results
whois <domain>           # gets whois information for domain
dig <domain>             # gets DNS information for domain
dig -x <host>            # reverses lookup host
wget <file>              # downloads file
curl <file>              # downloads file

##############################################################################
# VARIABLES
##############################################################################

varname=value                # defines a variable
varname=value command        # defines a variable to be in the environment of a particular subprocess
echo $varname                # checks a variable's value

array[0]=valA                # how to define an array
array[1]=valB
array[2]=valC
array=([2]=valC [0]=valA [1]=valB)  # another way
array=(valA valB valC)              # and another

${array[i]}                  # displays array's value for this index. If no index is supplied, array element 0 is assumed
${#array[i]}                 # to find out the length of any element in the array
${#array[@]}                 # to find out how many values there are in the array

declare -i d=123             # makes the variables integer
declare -r e=456             # makes the variables read-only
declare -l f="LOLCats"       # convert to lowercase -> lolcats
declare -u g="LOLCats"       # convert to uppercase -> LOLCATS

declare -a                   # the variables are treaded as arrays
declare -f                   # uses function names only
declare -F                   # displays function names without definitions
declare -x                   # marks the variables for export via the environment

${varname:-word}             # if varname exists and isn't null, return its value; otherwise return word
${varname:=word}             # if varname exists and isn't null, return its value; otherwise set it word and then return its value
${varname:?message}          # if varname exists and isn't null, return its value; otherwise print varname, followed by message and abort the current command or script
${varname:+word}             # if varname exists and isn't null, return word; otherwise return null
${varname:offset:length}     # performs substring expansion. It returns the substring of $varname starting at offset and up to length characters

${variable#pattern}          # if the pattern matches the beginning of the variable's value, delete the shortest part that matches and return the rest
${variable##pattern}         # if the pattern matches the beginning of the variable's value, delete the longest part that matches and return the rest
${variable%pattern}          # if the pattern matches the end of the variable's value, delete the shortest part that matches and return the rest
${variable%%pattern}         # if the pattern matches the end of the variable's value, delete the longest part that matches and return the rest
${variable/pattern/string}   # the longest match to pattern in variable is replaced by string. Only the first match is replaced
${variable//pattern/string}  # the longest match to pattern in variable is replaced by string. All matches are replaced

${#varname}                  # returns the length of the value of the variable as a character string

*(patternlist)               # matches zero or more occurrences of the given patterns
+(patternlist)               # matches one or more occurrences of the given patterns
?(patternlist)               # matches zero or one occurrence of the given patterns
@(patternlist)               # matches exactly one of the given patterns
!(patternlist)               # matches anything except one of the given patterns

$(UNIX command)              # command substitution: runs the command and returns standard output

##############################################################################
# FUNCTIONS
##############################################################################

# The function refers to passed arguments by position (as if they were positional parameters), that is, $1, $2, and so forth.
# [email protected] is equal to "$1" "$2"... "$N", where N is the number of positional parameters. $# holds the number of positional parameters.

function functname() {
  shell commands
}

unset -f functname  # deletes a function definition
declare -f          # displays all defined functions in your login session

##############################################################################
# FLOW CONTROLS
##############################################################################

statement1 && statement2  # and operator
statement1 || statement2  # or operator

-a                        # and operator inside a test conditional expression
-o                        # or operator inside a test conditional expression

# STRINGS

str1 = str2               # str1 matches str2
str1 != str2              # str1 does not match str2
str1 < str2               # str1 is less than str2 (alphabetically)
str1 > str2               # str1 is greater than str2 (alphabetically)
-n str1                   # str1 is not null (has length greater than 0)
-z str1                   # str1 is null (has length 0)

# FILES

-a file                   # file exists
-d file                   # file exists and is a directory
-e file                   # file exists; same -a
-f file                   # file exists and is a regular file (i.e., not a directory or other special type of file)
-r file                   # you have read permission
-s file                   # file exists and is not empty
-w file                   # your have write permission
-x file                   # you have execute permission on file, or directory search permission if it is a directory
-N file                   # file was modified since it was last read
-O file                   # you own file
-G file                   # file's group ID matches yours (or one of yours, if you are in multiple groups)
file1 -nt file2           # file1 is newer than file2
file1 -ot file2           # file1 is older than file2

# NUMBERS

-lt                       # less than
-le                       # less than or equal
-eq                       # equal
-ge                       # greater than or equal
-gt                       # greater than
-ne                       # not equal

if condition
then
  statements
[elif condition
  then statements...]
[else
  statements]
fi

for x in {1..10}
do
  statements
done

for name [in list]
do
  statements that can use $name
done

for (( initialisation ; ending condition ; update ))
do
  statements...
done

case expression in
  pattern1 )
    statements ;;
  pattern2 )
    statements ;;
esac

select name [in list]
do
  statements that can use $name
done

while condition; do
  statements
done

until condition; do
  statements
done

##############################################################################
# INPUT/OUTPUT REDIRECTORS
##############################################################################

cmd1|cmd2  # pipe; takes standard output of cmd1 as standard input to cmd2
< file     # takes standard input from file
> file     # directs standard output to file
>> file    # directs standard output to file; append to file if it already exists
>|file     # forces standard output to file even if noclobber is set
n>|file    # forces output to file from file descriptor n even if noclobber is set
<> file    # uses file as both standard input and standard output
n<>file    # uses file as both input and output for file descriptor n
n>file     # directs file descriptor n to file
n<file     # takes file descriptor n from file
n>>file    # directs file description n to file; append to file if it already exists
n>&        # duplicates standard output to file descriptor n
n<&        # duplicates standard input from file descriptor n
n>&m       # file descriptor n is made to be a copy of the output file descriptor
n<&m       # file descriptor n is made to be a copy of the input file descriptor
&>file     # directs standard output and standard error to file
<&-        # closes the standard input
>&-        # closes the standard output
n>&-       # closes the ouput from file descriptor n
n<&-       # closes the input from file descripor n

##############################################################################
# PROCESS HANDLING
##############################################################################

# To suspend a job, type CTRL+Z while it is running. You can also suspend a job with CTRL+Y.
# This is slightly different from CTRL+Z in that the process is only stopped when it attempts to read input from terminal.
# Of course, to interrupt a job, type CTRL+C.

myCommand &  # runs job in the background and prompts back the shell

jobs         # lists all jobs (use with -l to see associated PID)

fg           # brings a background job into the foreground
fg %+        # brings most recently invoked background job
fg %-        # brings second most recently invoked background job
fg %N        # brings job number N
fg %string   # brings job whose command begins with string
fg %?string  # brings job whose command contains string

kill -l      # returns a list of all signals on the system, by name and number
kill PID     # terminates process with specified PID

ps           # prints a line of information about the current running login shell and any processes running under it
ps -a        # selects all processes with a tty except session leaders

trap cmd sig1 sig2  # executes a command when a signal is received by the script
trap "" sig1 sig2   # ignores that signals
trap - sig1 sig2    # resets the action taken when the signal is received to the default

disown <PID|JID>    # removes the process from the list of jobs

wait                # waits until all background jobs have finished

##############################################################################
# DEBUGGING SHELL PROGRAMS
##############################################################################

bash -n scriptname  # don't run commands; check for syntax errors only
set -o noexec       # alternative (set option in script)

bash -v scriptname  # echo commands before running them
set -o verbose      # alternative (set option in script)

bash -x scriptname  # echo commands after command-line processing
set -o xtrace       # alternative (set option in script)

trap 'echo $varname' EXIT  # useful when you want to print out the values of variables at the point that your script exits

function errtrap {
  es=$?
  echo "ERROR line $1: Command exited with status $es."
}

trap 'errtrap $LINENO' ERR  # is run whenever a command in the surrounding script or function exits with non-zero status 

function dbgtrap {
  echo "badvar is $badvar"
}

trap dbgtrap DEBUG  # causes the trap code to be executed before every statement in a function or script
# ...section of code in which the problem occurs...
trap - DEBUG  # turn off the DEBUG trap

function returntrap {
  echo "A return occurred"
}

trap returntrap RETURN  # is executed each time a shell function or a script executed with the . or source commands finishes executing